Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece
Hippocrates ( 460- 377 B.C.E.) is considered to be the father of medicine. He remained powerful in medical circles throughout antiquity and beyond. He was the first who observed the lateralization of brain function just in 4th century BCE. The impact of Hippocrates on the neurological thought was enormous. According to his study of anatomy, the human brain has two halves divided by a membrane. He made a distinction between the meninges- dura and pia.Then, he labelled the brain as a phlegmatic organ and identified it as the origin of certain diseases. After careful observations of his patients, he realized that an injury to the right side of  the head causes palsy or spasms to the left side of the body. He stated that the principle to rule over the rest of the soul resided in the left ventricle.
It contains outstanding concepts about the brain as the seat of human intellect as well as passages dealing with the effects of brain injury.
In one of his books , ''De morbo sacro'' he points out that the brain was regarded as the seat of judgement, emotions and aesthetic activity. Specifically, he states that : ''our pleasures, joys , laughter and jests arise from no other source than the brain; and so do our pains , grief, anxiety and tears. Through it...we also discern ugly and beautiful , bad and good, pleasant and unpleasant''.

Generally, thinking activity , moral consciousness, perceptive elaboration and control of body's movement were functions all localized in the brain. Very significant was his contribution to the study of epilepsy>επιλαμβάνειν on his book ''On the sacred disease''. He concluded that sacred disease, which is epilepsy was neither sacred nor divine. It was most likely inherited and it caused by brain malfunction. Hippocrates claimed it has a natural cause. Its cause found on the brain.As he wrote: '' the eyes and ears and tongue and hands and feet do whatsoever the brain determines; there is an element of intelligence in the whole body...but it is the brain thst is the messenger to the understanding''. He strongly believed that the brain was liquefied due to epileptic seizures.He also noted that epilepsy can occur at any age.
Furthermore, he gave an explanation for other diseases related to the malfunction of the brain , such as mental insanity. He perceived it as a process of brain corruption induced by bile , one of the four humors ( blood, yellow bile , black bile and phlegm) which was responsible for the state of health.
  One of the most famous Hippocratic neurological diagnoses was epidemic paralysis of legs , which is today called as poliomyelitis. He spoke of hydrocephalus with the meaning of fluid collection under the bones and around the brain.  In general, he believed that the appearance of diseases is connected with the deregulation of equilibrium of humora in human body. According to his studies, the correlation between these four humors has major impact on brain function..
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